Classical Music Timeline: 1940s

This is one of a series of postings of important classical music dates, from the 17th century to the present. Included are the date and location of the birth and death of composers, and the premiere date and location of the first public performance of works. When the premiere date and location is unknown, the date or year of completion of the work is given. Though reasonably comprehensive, this is a subjective list, so the choice of composers and works is mine. If you find any errors, or if you can offer a premiere date and location for a work where only the completion date or year is listed, please post a comment here.

1940
Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987) completed The Comedians, op. 26

June 11 – Divertimento for string orchestra, Sz. 113 BB 118 by Béla Bartók (1881-1945) was first performed in Basel, Switzerland

July 1The Sea Hawk, with film score by Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897-1957), was released

November 9Concierto de Aranjuez, for guitar and orchestra, by Joaquín Rodrigo (1901-1999) was first performed in Barcelona, Spain

November 16 – Violin Concerto in D minor by Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

December 3 – Leokadiya Kashperova (1872-1940) died in Moscow, Russia

December 9 – Sextet for Piano and Winds (1939 revision), FP 100 by Francis Poulenc (1899-1963) was first performed in Paris, France

December 26 – Symphony No. 4, “Folk Song Symphony”, by Roy Harris (1898-1979) was first performed in Cleveland, Ohio

1941
January 3 – Symphonic Dances, op. 45 by Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) was first performed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

January 10 – Frank Bridge (1879-1941) died in Eastbourne, England

February 7 – Violin Concerto, op. 14 by Samuel Barber (1910-1981) was first performed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

April 17 – Adolphus Hailstork (1941-) was born in Rochester, New York

June 21Masquerade Suite by Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

June 26Warsaw Concerto by Richard Addinsell (1904-1977) premiered in the film Dangerous Moonlight

1942
Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) completed Song of the Brave, for tenor and piano, op. 89, no. 2

March 5 – Symphony No. 7, “Leningrad”, by Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975) was first performed in Saint Petersburg, Russia (Leningrad at the time)

April 16 – Second Essay for Orchestra, op. 17 by Samuel Barber (1910-1981) was first performed in New York, New York

June 11 – Geoffrey Toye (1889-1942) died in London, England

June 18 – Paul McCartney (1942-) was born in Liverpool, England

December 4A Ceremony of Carols, op. 28 by Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) was first performed (in its final form) in London, England

December 9Gayane, ballet by Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978) was first performed in Perm, Russia

1943
March 12Fanfare for the Common Man by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was first performed in Cincinnati, Ohio

March 28 – Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) died in Beverly Hills, California

June 24 – Symphony No. 5 in D major by Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) was first performed in London, England

1944
Percy Grainger (1882-1961) completed the orchestration of La Vallée des cloches (”Valley of the Bells”) from Miroirs by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)

January 28 – Symphony No. 1, “Jeremiah”, by Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) was first performed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

April 16Concierto de estío, for violin and orchestra, by Joaquín Rodrigo (1901-1999) was first performed in Lisbon, Portugal

May 7Our Town, music from the film score, by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

May 8 – Ethel Smyth (1858-1944) died in Woking, England

June 7Gran Marcha de los Subsecretarios (“Grand March of the Subsecretaries”), for piano four hands, by Joaquín Rodrigo (1901-1999) was first performed in Madrid, Spain

August – Kaljo Raid (1921-2005) completed Symphony No. 1

October 30Appalachian Spring, ballet by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was first performed in Washington, D.C.

October 31Sebastian, ballet by Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007) was first performed in New York, New York

December 1 – Concerto for Orchestra, Sz. 116, BB 123 by Béla Bartók (1881-1945) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

December 27 – Amy Beach (1867-1944) died in New York, New York

December 30 – Piano Sonata No. 8 in B♭ major, op. 84 by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

1945
Suite from Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss (1864-1949) was arranged by Artur Rodziński (1892-1958)

January 13 – Symphony No. 5 in B♭ major, op. 100 by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

April 9Girl No. 217, with film score by Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978), was released

August 2 – Emil von Reznicek (1860-1945) died in Berlin, Germany

September 15 – Anton Webern (1883-1945) died in Mittersill, Austria

September 24 – John Rutter (1945-) was born in London, England

September 26 – Béla Bartók (1881-1945) died in New York, New York

October 12 – Symphony No. 3, H. 299 by Bohuslav Martinů (1890-1959) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

November 3 – Symphony No. 9 in E♭ major, op. 70 by Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975) was first performed in Saint Petersburg, Russia

November 21Cinderella, ballet, op. 87 by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

November 30 – Symphony No. 4, H. 305 by Bohuslav Martinů (1890-1959) was first performed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

December 17À l’ombre de Torre Bermeja (“In the Shadow of the Crimson Tower”) by Joaquín Rodrigo (1901-1999) was first performed in Madrid, Spain

December 17A Stopwatch and an Ordnance Map, for male chorus, brass, and drums, op. 15 by Samuel Barber (1910-1981) was first performed in New York, New York

1946
Twenty-Four Preludes, op. 38 by Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

February 8 – Piano Concerto No. 3 in E major, Sz. 119, BB 127 by Béla Bartók (1881-1945) was first performed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

October 16 – Granville Bantock (1868-1946) died in London, England

October 18 – Symphony No. 3 by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

October 23 – Violin Sonata No. 1 in F minor, op. 80 by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

November 14 – Manuel de Falla (1876-1946) died in Alta Gracia, Argentina

November 27Cinco piezas infantiles (“Five children’s pieces”), for orchestra, by Joaquín Rodrigo (1901-1999) was first performed in Madrid, Spain

December 6 – Maximilian Steinberg (1883-1946) died in Saint Petersburg, Russia

1947
January 8 – Piano Concerto, op. 44 by Richard Arnell (1917-2009) was first performed in New York, New York

February 15 – Violin Concerto in D major, op. 35 by Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897-1957) was first performed in St. Louis, Missouri

February 15 – John Adams (1947-) was born in Worcester, Massachusetts

March 5 – Alfredo Casella (1883-1947) died in Rome, Italy

June 14 – Michael Mauldin (1947-) was born in Port Arthur, Texas

August 20 – Concerto for Bassoon and Strings with Percussion by Gordon Jacob (1895-1984) was first performed in London, England

October 23Starlight Roof Waltz by George Melachrino (1909-1965) was first performed in London, England

November 12Flourish, Mighty Land, cantata for chorus and orchestra, op. 114 by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

November 29The Legend of Ohrid, ballet by Stevan Hristić (1885-1958) was first performed in Belgrade, Serbia

1948
William Grant Still (1895-1978) completed Miniatures, for flute, oboe, and piano

January 21 – Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876-1948) died in Venice, Italy

April 21 – Symphony No. 6 in E minor by Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) was first performed in London, England

May 4Sleigh Ride by Leroy Anderson (1908-1975) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

June 27 – George Templeton Strong (1856-1948) died in Geneva, Switzerland

October 29 – Violin Concerto in C major, op. 48 by Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987) was first performed in Moscow, Russia

October 30The Red Pony, suite from the film score, by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) was first performed in Houston, Texas

1949
Clive Richardson (1909-1998) completed Beachcomber

Robert Farnon (1917-2005) completed How Beautiful is Night

January 14 – Joaquín Turina (1882-1949) died in Madrid, Spain

September 8 – Richard Strauss (1864-1949) died in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

September 11 – Henri Rabaud (1873-1949) died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

December 2Turangalîla-Symphonie by Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992) was first performed in Boston, Massachusetts

1930s

1950s→

Solar Siblings

When our Sun formed 4.6 billion years ago, it almost certainly was a member of an open star cluster. Over several hundred million years, most of the stars in this cluster would have dissipated. Is there any hope, then, of finding some of our solar siblings?

I ran a query against the Gaia DR3 database to find stars with radial velocities and proper motions that are zero, within the measurement uncertainties. In other words, their space motions appear to be similar to that of the Sun. Could some of these stars be our long lost solar siblings?

First, some caveats.

  • 4.6 billion years is a lot of time, and dynamical evolution may lead to solar siblings no longer having comparable space motions to the Sun.
  • Error bars for the radial velocities, proper motions, and distances of many of these stars are large enough that subsequent more precise measurements may show that they are not co-moving with the Sun.
  • Though radial velocities are not affected by increasing star distance, proper motions are; therefore, proper motion in right ascension and declination will approach zero with increasing stellar distance
  • Some co-moving stars will be coincidental, especially if they are at large distances

I found 230 candidate stars in Gaia DR3 that appear to be co-moving with the Sun. They are listed in the table below.

Gaia DR3 Zero Space Motion

wdt_ID wdt_created_by wdt_created_at wdt_last_edited_by wdt_last_edited_at Gaia DR3 SOURCE_ID Other Catalog RA (2016) Dec (2016) G Mag Distance (ly)
1 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 5534600793005666944 TYC 7663-2637-1 08 05 30 - 40 05 11 10.63 2,100
2 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 4044381556633823232 HD 321719 18 25 18 - 34 39 16 10.91 3,776
3 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 5933186123279263872 TYC 8323-81-1 16 15 34 - 52 29 35 11.30 2,930
4 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 4069457877771166464 18 00 01 - 22 47 10 11.33 5,673
5 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 5926323972473953792 TYC 8349-1491-1 17 19 13 - 50 14 57 11.85 999,999
6 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 1816548038377615872 TYC 1639-1018-1 20 22 27 + 20 06 07 11.86 1,208
7 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 3403073120299336960 UCAC4 557-018920 05 44 22 + 21 14 45 12.00 1,720
8 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 5316984970605614208 08 46 50 - 54 57 33 12.08 1,192
9 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 2224937958644193920 V898 Cep 22 38 02 + 67 27 58 12.19 1,998
10 do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM do18559252 30/04/2024 09:51 AM 4103489613769523712 18 42 09 - 14 55 00 12.21 2,988
Gaia DR3 SOURCE_ID Other Catalog RA (2016) Dec (2016) G Mag Distance (ly)

Please note that a distance of 999,999 ly (light years) indicates a Gaia parallax that is negative, meaning that the star is so far away that a reliable parallax cannot be measured. In other words, it is zero. Also, the farther away the star is, the more uncertainty there is in the distance.

19 of these 230 stars are bright enough, important enough, or lucky enough to have entries in the SIMBAD database. The nearest of these is TYC 8312-3134-1 which is 518 ly away in the constellation Norma.

We can do a simple BOTEC to determine how fast TYC 8312-3134-1 would have to be moving relative to the Sun to travel 518 ly in 4.6 Gyr. The answer is just 0.03 km/s = 30 meters/second. This is much less than the typical space motion of stars in the solar neighborhood relative to the Sun, which is on the order of many kilometers per second. It is therefore completely plausible that solar siblings could now be at a distance of at least 500 ly and even many times further than that.

Reference

SELECT TOP 2000   gaia_source.source_id,gaia_source.ra,gaia_source.dec,gaia_source.parallax,gaia_source.pmra,gaia_source.pmdec,gaia_source.ruwe,gaia_source.phot_g_mean_mag,gaia_source.bp_rp,gaia_source.radial_velocity,gaia_source.radial_velocity_error,gaia_source.phot_variable_flag,gaia_source.non_single_star,gaia_source.has_xp_continuous,gaia_source.has_xp_sampled,gaia_source.has_rvs,gaia_source.has_epoch_photometry,gaia_source.has_epoch_rv,gaia_source.has_mcmc_gspphot,gaia_source.has_mcmc_msc,gaia_source.teff_gspphot,gaia_source.logg_gspphot,gaia_source.mh_gspphot,gaia_source.distance_gspphot,gaia_source.azero_gspphot,gaia_source.ag_gspphot,gaia_source.ebpminrp_gspphot
FROM gaiadr3.gaia_source 
WHERE (gaiadr3.gaia_source.radial_velocity-gaiadr3.gaia_source.radial_velocity_error <= 0)
  and (gaiadr3.gaia_source.radial_velocity+gaiadr3.gaia_source.radial_velocity_error >= 0)
  and (gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmra-gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmra_error <= 0)
  and (gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmra+gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmra_error >= 0)
  and (gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmdec-gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmdec_error <= 0)
  and (gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmdec+gaiadr3.gaia_source.pmdec_error >= 0);