March for Our Lives

I am so very proud of what hundreds of thousands of Americans of all ages did today, marching in hundreds of anti-gun-violence rallies all across our nation.  I’m especially proud of the students.  We had a huge group of marchers in Mineral Point, Wisconsin (students included), and I was glad I participated.

I do not want to live in a world where everyone is armed to the teeth.  You know, you have to decide what kind of a world you want to live in and then work towards that goal, no matter how difficult.

Paul McCartney at a March for Our Lives event in New York City

I was devastated and angry when John Lennon was shot to death in New York in 1980 outside his apartment building by a very disturbed man (it is almost always a man, isn’t it?).  I mean, who the hell would kill a musician?  I will never get over it On that day (and many times since), I decided “enough is enough”.  Gun ownership should be a privilege that has to be earned, not a right.  And weapons of war do not belong in the hands of private citizens—ever.  If that involves repealing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, then so be it.  But “we the people” never get a chance to vote on gun issues, do we?

If gun owners in this country can’t support much stricter and sensible gun laws, then maybe we should peacefully go our separate ways.  Gun lovers can have their country (a dystopia, really), and the rest of us can live somewhere else.

“The young do not know enough to be prudent, and therefore they attempt the impossible, and achieve it, generation after generation.”

– Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973)

Dateline 2024: Total Solar Eclipse

In little more than six years, another total solar eclipse across the continental U.S. will pass as close as Southern Illinois and Indiana.  Like our recent eclipse of August 21, 2017, the next total solar eclipse will also take place on a Monday and, remarkably, just a few minutes earlier in the day.  Save the date: April 8, 2024.   Actually, not long to wait.  Think about what you were doing around December 7, 2011.  Can you remember?  No question about it, the next six years will go faster than the previous six did.  Seems that as we age our sense of time changes, and time seems to go faster and faster.

The point of maximum length of totality for the 2017 eclipse was 12 miles NW of the center of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, where totality lasted 2m40s and the path of totality was 71 miles wide.

The point of maximum length of totality for the 2024 eclipse will be near Nazas, Mexico (in the state of Durango), where totality will last 4m28s and the path of totality will be 123 miles wide.  Yes, this will be a longer eclipse!

Remarkably, there is a location in southern Illinois that is on the centerline of both the 2017 and 2024 eclipses!  That location is 37°38’32” N, 89°15’55” W, SW of Carbondale, Illinois, near Cedar Lake and the Midland Hills Country Club.

When did a total solar eclipse last grace Dodgeville, Wisconsin?  Nearly 639 years ago, on May 16, 1379.  The duration of totality was 3m48s.  Perhaps the Oneota people then living in this area witnessed the event.

The next total solar eclipse visible from Dodgeville won’t happen for another 654 years.  There’ll be annular eclipses in 2048, 2213, 2410, 2421, and 2614.  Then, finally, on June 17, 2672, the totally-eclipsed Sun will once again grace the skies of Dodgeville—weather permitting, of course.  The duration of the eclipse at Dodgeville will be 2m47s.  There will be another annular eclipse in 2678, followed by another total eclipse (duration 3m01s) on June 8, 2681.  Then, just two years later there’ll be another total eclipse at Dodgeville: on November 10, 2683 (0m49s).  That’s three total eclipses and one annular eclipse visible at Dodgeville in just 11 years!

LED Residential Streetlight Debut in Dodgeville: Too Bright!

A new bright white LED streetlight made its debut in Dodgeville, Wisconsin on Friday, November 3, 2017, and it isn’t pretty.

The white-light LED streetlight is located at the NE corner of W. Washington St. & N. Johnson St. in Dodgeville.  The illumination level on the ground peaks at 3.15 fc.  An existing orange-light high pressure sodium streetlight at the SW corner of W. Division St. & N. Virginia Terrace peaks at 1.23 fc, which is typical.

Even though the reduction of uplight and near-horizontal light (i.e. “glare”) from this luminaire is a welcome improvement, an illumination level 2.6 times as bright as before is neither welcome nor justified.  Furthermore, lower illumination levels may be acceptable when using white-light LED luminaires in comparison with high pressure sodium (Glamox n.d.).  More research is needed on the effect of spectral composition on both brightness perception and, more importantly, visual acuity at various illuminance levels.

I do not have an instrument to measure the correlated color temperature (CCT) of this luminaire, but visually it looks to me to be around 4000 K, which is too blue.  I will check with the City of Dodgeville and report back here.  The International Dark-Sky Assocation (IDA n.d.) and the American Medical Assocation (AMA 2016) recommend using “warm white” LEDs with a CCT no higher than 3000 K, with 2700 K preferred.

References
AMA (2016), Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting H-135.927.  Retrieved November 5, 2017 from https://policysearch.ama-assn.org/policyfinder/detail/H-135.927?uri=%2FAMADoc%2FHOD-135.927.xml.

Glamox (n.d.), The Glamox Brightness Sensitivity Test. Retrieved November 5, 2017 from http://glamox.com/gmo-recreational/led-brightness.

IDA (n.d.), LED: Why 3000K or Less.  Retrieved November 5, 2017 from http://www.darksky.org/lighting/3k/.

Oesper, D. (January 9, 2017), Avoid Blue-Rich LED Lighting.  http://cosmicreflections.skythisweek.info/2017/01/09/avoid-blue-rich-led-lighting/.

Outdoor Lighting Codes and Ordinances in Wisconsin

Last Updated: 5/22/2017

Here are all the outdoor lighting codes and ordinances in Wisconsin that I am aware of.  A big thank you to Scott Lind, PE, of Hollandale, Wisconsin for initially putting together this list in 2007!

Please post a comment or contact me via email if you have additions or updates to this list.

Blue Moundsmap
https://www.ecode360.com/27010348

Brookfieldmap
http://www.codepublishing.com/WI/Brookfield/html/Brookfield17/Brookfield17120.html#17.120.070

Chenequamap
http://chenequa.org/wp-content/themes/Chenequa/Documents/Ordinances/Chap5.pdf

Cloverlandmap
http://www.townofcloverland.org/Documents/Ordinances/Code%203.01%20Lighting.pdf

Delafieldmap
https://library.municode.com/wi/delafield/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=CH17ZOCORERE411_GEPR_17.235OULIAM491

Delavanmap
http://ci.delavan.wi.us/download/departments/building-zoning/zoning-codes/zc_23-7perstand_code.pdf
See Section 23.707 Exterior Lighting Standards

Egg Harbormap
http://eggharborwi.govoffice2.com/vertical/sites/%7B569578EA-93E6-481F-B733-DF3296C08FEE%7D/uploads/%7B7B55219C-9B97-4628-AEF1-445C51A0BB09%7D.PDF

Fontana-on-Geneva Lakemap
https://library.municode.com/wi/fontana-on-geneva_lake/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIIMUCO_CH18ZO_ARTXDEST_S18-165EXLIST

Fox Crossingmap
http://www.foxcrossingwi.gov/wp-content/uploads/Departments/MunicipalCodeBook/Chapter%2029%20%20Development%20Ordinance.pdf

Fox Pointmap
https://www.ecode360.com/14717677

Genevamap
http://www.townofgenevawi.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/ORDIN-59-Regulate-Outdoor-Lighting-Advertising-Signs.pdf

Green Lake Countymap
https://ecode360.com/9770791

Hollandmap
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B1qD1hgbbNz-bWRSWmlkN2o0eEU/view

Kenoshamap
https://www.kenosha.org/images/GENORD.pdf
See Section 4.07 Artificial Light and Glare

Koshkonongmap
http://koshkonongwi.com/download/outdoor-lighting-ordinance/

Madisonmap
http://www.cityofmadison.com/attorney/ordinances/documents/chapter%2010%20-%20streets,%20alleys,%20sidewalks,%20and%20gutters.pdf
See Section 10.085 Outdoor Lighting

Mequonmap
https://library.municode.com/wi/mequon/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIICOOR_CH58PLDERE_ARTVSISTDECR_DIV2COINPAINMUMIREDE_S58-567OULIIN

Middletonmap
http://www.ci.middleton.wi.us/DocumentCenter/View/43

Mineral Pointmap
http://skythisweek.info/mineralpointlighting.pdf
Is this lighting ordinance still in effect?  I cannot find it on the Mineral Point website.

Mukwonagomap
https://library.municode.com/wi/mukwonago/codes/code_of_ordinances
See Section e Lighting Standards

New Glarusmap
http://newglarusvillage.com/__media/pdfs/ordinances/LightingLandscape.pdf
See Article XVIII Exterior Lighting Plans and Standards

Oconomowoc Lakemap
http://www.oconlake.com/Documents/ord178.html

Richfieldmap
https://ecode360.com/16178580

Shorewood Hillsmap
http://www.shorewood-hills.org/vertical/sites/%7B00D5AF3F-ADFE-4173-AF3A-FC0C1A78DA4B%7D/uploads/Ch_22_Dark_Sky.pdf

Springdalemap
http://www.townofspringdale.org/site_files/editor_files/image/file/Ordinance/031714_pdf_Final_Dark_Sky_Lighting_Ordinance.pdf

Springfieldmap
http://www.town.springfield.wi.us/ordinances/chapter-9/
See sections 9.02(7) Exterior Lighting, and 9.04(7) Exterior Lighting Plan

Sturgeon Baymap
https://library.municode.com/wi/sturgeon_bay/codes/code_of_ordinances
See Section 20.12.(1)(b)12

Sussexmap
http://www.villagesussex.org/vertical/sites/%7B1FD3B636-3BF9-4496-900E-EAA7FFADF5E8%7D/uploads/17.0600_Traffic_Loading_Parking_Access_Storage_and_Lighting-01-2016.pdf
See Section 17.0608 Lighting

Westportmap
http://www.townofwestport.org/Ordinances/Title%209/Title%209%20Chapter%207.pdf

Whitefish Baymap
https://www.ecode360.com/documents/WH3817/WH3817-016.pdf
See Section 16.31 III A2

Williams Baymap
http://www.williamsbay.org/images/doc/Chapter%2015.pdf
See Section 15.03 Outdoor Lighting and Advertising Signs

Winneconnemap
https://ecode360.com/14487227?highlight=260#14487227

The Wisconsin State Law Library maintains a comprehensive list of Wisconsin Ordinances and Codes.  This will be a good resource for us to find additional outdoor lighting codes and ordinances to be added to this list, as well as to check your local government’s codes and ordinances in general.

It is interesting to note that nearly two-thirds of these ordinances are for suburban communities in very light-polluted metro areas.  Another four ordinances are no doubt in place to help protect the Yerkes Observatory (Williams Bay, Geneva, Fontana-on-Geneva Lake, and Delavan).  Where are the rural ordinances and dark sky preserves?  Since there are very few remaining locations in Wisconsin where the night sky is truly dark, shouldn’t we be aggressively protecting those areas?  Wouldn’t it be easier to save a pristine area than to restore an almost hopelessly polluted one? Another interesting point is that upscale suburban communities are much more likely to have a lighting ordinance than more affordable communities.  Some subdivisions even exclude streetlights, but these are almost never places where most of us can afford to live.