LED Residential Streetlight Debut in Dodgeville: Too Bright!

A new bright white LED streetlight made its debut in Dodgeville, Wisconsin on Friday, November 3, 2017, and it isn’t pretty.

The white-light LED streetlight is located at the NE corner of W. Washington St. & N. Johnson St. in Dodgeville.  The illumination level on the ground peaks at 3.15 fc.  An existing orange-light high pressure sodium streetlight at the SW corner of W. Division St. & N. Virginia Terrace peaks at 1.23 fc, which is typical.

Even though the reduction of uplight and near-horizontal light (i.e. “glare”) from this luminaire is a welcome improvement, an illumination level 2.6 times as bright as before is neither welcome nor justified.  Furthermore, lower illumination levels may be acceptable when using white-light LED luminaires in comparison with high pressure sodium (Glamox n.d.).  More research is needed on the effect of spectral composition on both brightness perception and, more importantly, visual acuity at various illuminance levels.

I do not have an instrument to measure the correlated color temperature (CCT) of this luminaire, but visually it looks to me to be around 4000 K, which is too blue.  I will check with the City of Dodgeville and report back here.  The International Dark-Sky Assocation (IDA n.d.) and the American Medical Assocation (AMA 2016) recommend using “warm white” LEDs with a CCT no higher than 3000 K, with 2700 K preferred.

References
AMA (2016), Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting H-135.927.  Retrieved November 5, 2017 from https://policysearch.ama-assn.org/policyfinder/detail/H-135.927?uri=%2FAMADoc%2FHOD-135.927.xml.

Glamox (n.d.), The Glamox Brightness Sensitivity Test. Retrieved November 5, 2017 from http://glamox.com/gmo-recreational/led-brightness.

IDA (n.d.), LED: Why 3000K or Less.  Retrieved November 5, 2017 from http://www.darksky.org/lighting/3k/.

Oesper, D. (January 9, 2017), Avoid Blue-Rich LED Lighting.  http://cosmicreflections.skythisweek.info/2017/01/09/avoid-blue-rich-led-lighting/.

Outdoor Lighting Codes and Ordinances in Wisconsin

Last Updated: 5/22/2017

Here are all the outdoor lighting codes and ordinances in Wisconsin that I am aware of.  A big thank you to Scott Lind, PE, of Hollandale, Wisconsin for initially putting together this list in 2007!

Please post a comment or contact me via email if you have additions or updates to this list.

Blue Moundsmap
http://www.ecode360.com/27010348

Brookfieldmap
http://www.codepublishing.com/WI/Brookfield/html/Brookfield17/Brookfield17120.html#17.120.070

Chenequamap
http://chenequa.org/wp-content/themes/Chenequa/Documents/Ordinances/Chap5.pdf

Cloverlandmap
http://www.townofcloverland.org/Documents/Ordinances/Code%203.01%20Lighting.pdf

Delafieldmap
https://www.municode.com/library/wi/delafield/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=CH17ZOCORERE411_GEPR_17.235OULIAM491

Delavanmap
http://ci.delavan.wi.us/download/departments/building-zoning/zoning-codes/zc_23-7perstand_code.pdf
See Section 23.707 Exterior Lighting Standards

Egg Harbormap
http://www.villageofeggharbor.org/vertical/sites/%7B569578EA-93E6-481F-B733-DF3296C08FEE%7D/uploads/%7B7B55219C-9B97-4628-AEF1-445C51A0BB09%7D.PDF

Fontana-on-Geneva Lakemap
https://www.municode.com/library/wi/fontana-on-geneva_lake/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIIMUCO_CH18ZO_ARTXDEST_S18-165EXLIST

Fox Crossingmap
http://www.town-menasha.com/departments/clerks-office/ordinances/
Click on section Chapter 29 Development Ordinance and search for “lighting”

Fox Pointmap
http://www.ecode360.com/14717677

Genevamap
http://www.townofgenevawi.com/uploads/documents/ORDIN-59%20Regulate%20Outdoor%20Lighting%20&%20Advertising%20Signs.pdf

Green Lake Countymap
http://ecode360.com/9770791

Hollandmap
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B1qD1hgbbNz-bWRSWmlkN2o0eEU/view

Kenoshamap
https://www.kenosha.org/images/GENORD.pdf
See Section 4.07 Artificial Light and Glare

Koshkonongmap
http://koshkonongwi.com/download/outdoor-lighting-ordinance/

Madisonmap
http://www.cityofmadison.com/attorney/ordinances/documents/chapter%2010%20-%20streets,%20alleys,%20sidewalks,%20and%20gutters.pdf
See Section 10.085 Outdoor Lighting

Mequonmap
https://www.municode.com/library/wi/mequon/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIICOOR_CH58PLDERE_ARTVSISTDECR_DIV2COINPAINMUMIREDE_S58-567OULIIN

Middletonmap
http://www.ci.middleton.wi.us/DocumentCenter/View/43

Mineral Pointmap
http://skythisweek.info/mineralpointlighting.pdf
Is this lighting ordinance still in effect?  I cannot find it on the Mineral Point website.

Mukwonagomap
https://www.municode.com/library/wi/mukwonago/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIICOOR_CH100ZO_ARTIXSIPLRE_S100-601SIPLARRESTALNOMIPR
See Section e Lighting Standards

New Glarusmap
http://www.newglarusvillage.com/__media/pdfs/ordinances/LightingLandscape.pdf
See Article XVIII Exterior Lighting Plans and Standards

Oconomowoc Lakemap
http://www.oconlake.com/Documents/ord178.html

Richfieldmap
http://ecode360.com/16178580

Shorewood Hillsmap
http://www.shorewood-hills.org/vertical/sites/%7B00D5AF3F-ADFE-4173-AF3A-FC0C1A78DA4B%7D/uploads/Ch_22_Dark_Sky.pdf

Springdalemap
http://www.townofspringdale.org/site_files/editor_files/image/file/Ordinance/031714_pdf_Final_Dark_Sky_Lighting_Ordinance.pdf

Springfieldmap
http://www.town.springfield.wi.us/ordinances/chapter-9/
See sections 9.02(7) Exterior Lighting, and 9.04(7) Exterior Lighting Plan

Sturgeon Baymap
https://www.municode.com/library/wi/sturgeon_bay/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=CO_CH20ZOCO_20.12USREDI
See Section 20.12.(1)(b)12

Sussexmap
http://www.villagesussex.org/vertical/sites/%7B1FD3B636-3BF9-4496-900E-EAA7FFADF5E8%7D/uploads/17.0600_Traffic_Loading_Parking_Access_Storage_and_Lighting-01-2016.pdf
See Section 17.0608 Lighting

Westportmap
http://www.townofwestport.org/Ordinances/Title%209/Title%209%20Chapter%207.pdf

Whitefish Baymap
http://www.ecode360.com/documents/WH3817/WH3817-016.pdf
See Section 16.31 III A2

Williams Baymap
http://www.williamsbay.org/images/doc/Chapter%2015.pdf
See Section 15.03 Outdoor Lighting and Advertising Signs

Winneconnemap
http://ecode360.com/14487227?highlight=260#14487227

The Wisconsin State Law Library maintains a comprehensive list of Wisconsin Ordinances and Codes.  This will be a good resource for us to find additional outdoor lighting codes and ordinances to be added to this list, as well as to check your local government’s codes and ordinances in general.

It is interesting to note that nearly two-thirds of these ordinances are for suburban communities in very light-polluted metro areas.  Another four ordinances are no doubt in place to help protect the Yerkes Observatory (Williams Bay, Geneva, Fontana-on-Geneva Lake, and Delavan).  Where are the rural ordinances and dark sky preserves?  Since there are very few remaining locations in Wisconsin where the night sky is truly dark, shouldn’t we be aggressively protecting those areas?  Wouldn’t it be easier to save a pristine area than to restore an almost hopelessly polluted one? Another interesting point is that upscale suburban communities are much more likely to have a lighting ordinance than more affordable communities.  Some subdivisions even exclude streetlights, but these are almost never places where most of us can afford to live.